Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy is utilized to identify types of chemical bonds in a molecule by producing an infrared absorption spectrum that is a molecular “fingerprint”.
The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Microscope attachment is utilized to identify chemical contaminants by obtaining reflectance or transmittance spectra on visible particles as small as 20 microns.
The Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) technique is capable of measuring stable metallic elements in the periodic table to determine what elements are present in a sample and at what concentrations they are present.
Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometer
Gas Chromatography (GC) is used to separate and identify the volatile components of a mixture by evaporating the components and passing the gaseous components through the column to separate and identify the individual components. The Mass Spectrometer is an instrument which can measure the masses and relative concentrations of atoms and molecules. The combination of a mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph is a powerful tool for the detection of trace quantities of compounds.
Ion Chromatography measures the concentrations of ionic species by separating them based on their interaction with a resin. Ionic species separate differently depending on species type and size. The retention time of different species determines the ionic concentrations in the sample. Ion chromatographs are able to measure the concentrations of major ion such as fluoride, chloride, nitrate, nitrite and sulfate as well as major cations such as sodium, ammonium, potassium, calcium and magnesium.
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy
The SEM is a microscope that uses electrons instead of light to form an image. The SEM has a large depth of field which allows more of a specimen to be in focus at one time and has a much higher resolution that allows for more control of magnification that produces strikingly clear images. The Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy collects the signals to form a spectra that identifies the elements present in the area of analysis.
UV Visible Spectrophotometer
The UV Visible Spectrophotometer utilizes a beam of light from a visible and/or UV light source that is passed through the sample and is received by a detector to identify the compounds present. Different compounds have different absorbancies that allow for the identification of the individual compounds.
Ion Selective Electrodes for Fluoride
Ion Selective Electrodes (ISE) are membrane electrodes that respond selectivity to specific ions that are in the presence of various ions. The membrane is attached to the end of a probe that contains an internal reference electrode and is immersed in the solution of interest to determine the presence of the ion in which the membrane is designed to detect. The most basic and common ISE is a pH probe.
Potentiometric Titration is a volumetric method in which the potential between two electrodes is measured for the determination of specific ions in solution. Potentiometric Titrations are preferred to manual titrations due to increased accuracy and precision.